Mobile phone and WLAN

On 1. April 2012, in Enhanced Wireless, by ewc

There is a trend in the technology world to create new and marketable devices.

Yet, functionality seems to be more of a desire than actuality.

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) is taking the mobile phone market to a new level of performance. Never before have so many, had the opportunity to remotely access information services. Originally, the mobile phone was a tool, the technologically suave businessperson, used to conduct phone conversations with clients and associates while traveling from location to location, without wiring to a local network.

Now, that technology has grown. Anyone, who has a desire to communicate with someone while on the go, has a mobile phone.
Not only can a person use one to make a call, they can also use them to:

  • Text.
  • Perform document functions.
  • Email.
  • Download music.
  • Take Pictures.

These operations and more are the norm. With all that, technology floating around there had to be standards established. The IEEE (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers) established in 1957, set those standards for mobile phone communication.­WLAN also uses standards established by the IEEE.

What is the world is “G” anyway?

G stands for generation. When a mobile phone company refers to the term 3G or 4G, what they are saying is; that is the technology platform used for data service. The phone portion utilizes the 2G level. 1G is nothing more than analog technology.
There are new devices coming on the market that use both technologies. They use WLAN while stationary and cell technology for mobile operations. Switching from WLAN to 4G automatically will be the next challenge for the mobile phone companies to hurdle. Few companies are experimenting with the automatic switching process. Time will tell which technology is going to emerge as the leader. However, as of now, stationary usage will remain the domain of WLAN and Cellular technology will dominate mobile access.


IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. These standards are created and maintained by a body referred to as the IEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee. IEEE 802.11n belongs to the 802.11 family of over-the-air modulation techniques. All the OTA modulation techniques use the same basic protocol. The first of the series is the 802.11-1997 for wireless networking. However, the most common of them all is the 802.11b series, 802.11g and 802.11n. The 802.11n is a new modulation technique.

Both 802.11b and 802.11g work with the 2.4 GHz ISM band but devices and equipments that use these modulation techniques suffer interference from microwave ovens, Bluetooth devices and cordless telephones that have band widths close to them. This is what prompted the development of the 802.11n modulation technique. It is an amended version of the previous techniques and has been added multi-input multiple-output antennas (MIMO). This technique operates in the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands. It was ratified and approved in 2009 but before this, businesses that were already mitigating to 802.11n networks based on the Wi-Fi Alliance’s product certification.

802.11n is the newest Wi-Fi LAN technology and the most commonly used one now among others. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is the organization that developed the technology. The technology offers quadruple transfer rates of data with the fastest Wi-Fi technology. Unlike the 802.11a which works in the 5GHz and requires line-of-sight availability, the 802.11n does not need that. The transfer speeds of the 802.11n modulation technique are from 100 to 200 megabytes per second which are the highest transfer rates among all the family of modulation techniques.

The technology also has orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing which splits the signal frequencies into several channels for an enhanced throughput. It is expected to serve many personal electronic devices and mobile or handheld devices as well. This is a big milestone as far as wireless technology is concerned. The other series of the family include the 802.11b, 802.11g and finally 802.11a. These are some of the previous modulation techniques released by the IEEE.


Enhanced Wireless Consortium

On 1. December 2011, in Enhanced Wireless, by ewc

The Enhanced Wireless Consortium is a coalition formed by twenty seven by 2005 Wi-Fi industry players to accelerate the process of IEEE 802.11n standard development and promotion of a technology for the future generation wireless local area networking products and devices. This process was to be done by developing a specification with other industry player support and try to speed the ratification of an 802.11n standard. The objective of the Enhanced Wireless Consortium was to enable the interoperability of WLAN products among other advantages for the consumers. Another purpose was to increase the efficiency of wireless networks and performance in general before of the 802.11n standard ratification.

The Enhanced Wireless Consortium specification defines the technologies that are used in PC and networking equipments and a wide range of other mobile electronic application devices. The demand for higher speeds is the main objective for networking applications and related connections. The consortium designed its specifications to be able to support very high speeds of up to 600 Megabytes per minute. This is also the consideration of including other more advanced technologies such as Space Time Block Coding (STBC). This would make systems become able to deliver or transmit a wider range of wireless networked products.

Some of the members of the Enhanced Wireless Consortium are Apple, Azimuth, Atheros, Airoha, Broadcom, Buffallo, Conextant, Cisco Systems, D-Link, Intel Corporation, Lenovo, LitePoint, Marvell, NETGEAR, SANYO, Symbol Technologies, Sony, Toshiba, Winbond and many others. The coalition was formed back in 2005 and by now several other members have joined.

Some of the technical highlights of the Enhanced Wireless Consortium specifications are as follows; a mixed-mode interoperability with 802.11a/b/g networks which would in return enhance a wireless connection while still keeping the communication possible. PHY transmissions rates of up to 600Mbps which would enable high data transfer rates and still maintain the battery power by taking shorter to transfer the data. Other technical specifications include use of 2.4GHz or 5GHz unlicensed bands which actually matches the frequency plan for the already existing 802.11 electronic devices. The consortiums website is however seemingly in active for a while now and so are the consortium activities.

WLAN Standards

On 30. November 2011, in Enhanced Wireless, WLAN, by ewc

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is used by just about anyone using a wireless communication device such as a Smartphone, laptop, or tablet computer. The casual consumer refers to “Wi-Fi” or hotspots as places outside of the home where they will be able to use their equipment to access the Internet, check email, or connect to the hundreds of thousands of apps available without having to be hard-wired into an access point. Within the home, these devices are freely used while roaming from room to room without being connected through cables.

Homes and businesses typically use a router, or some other base station device allowing this mobility by accessing radio signals through the airwaves. Being hardwired or connected to the Ethernet using a cable plugged in to the point of entry established by one’s internet provider, the station interprets the data that the air wave radio signal is emitting based on the 802.11 protocol.

The 802.11 is a standard that was developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. There are many amendments to this protocol which is why consumers frequently see a letter following the digits, such as 802.11b or 802.11g. The amendments have allowed adjustments to the 802.11 by allowing faster and larger data transmission capability; security enhancements such as the WEP or WPA data encryption; ability to access international signals; traffic control mechanisms to reduce overlap of frequencies; and methods for devices to discover the 802.11 which is available where it is located.

There are hundreds of amendments to the 802.11 in addition to the ones mentioned. The average consumer does not realize how many amendments to the standard of protocol are being used simultaneously with each method of data access and transmission one initiates. If a wireless phone headset mechanism is used with a laptop that also uses a wireless mouse, several amendments to 802.11 are being employed as one is needed to access the IP provider; another to send signal from the device wireless card to the mouse and headset; and even another to connect a phone call to the cell phone signal proprietary to the users particular carrier.

Updates continually have to be added, adjusted, and sometimes deleted to keep up with the growing need for rapid wireless data transmission in a global sense. For instance, the average consumer is aware of Subscriber Identification Modules or SIM cards. This identifies the device, the country of origin as it is programmed to access the 802.11 protocol of that region, and the customer’s personal and account information. Security amendments are constantly reviewed to prevent identity theft as unlocking these codes is becoming more common.

The 802.11 standard is continually being modified so that cities, college campuses, and larger areas with a specific population of users or members have priority when accessing a local area network. With so many channels running through the air, it is easy for signals to overlap, and thus, cause traffic jams from users over- accessing, heavy data transmission at a point in time, or confusion between wireless devices and the signals they are emitting to grab 802.11.


How WLAN works

The first example of the WLAN wireless local area network was used by Norman Abrahamson during his professorship at the University of Hawaii. He used ham-radio signals to connect four computers on four of the islands using only the radio waves. Wireless Internet is achieved by using the unlicensed portions of radio waves set aside for Scientific and Medical purposes that are located between 902 and 928, 2400 and 2483.5, and 5725 and 5850 MHz’s. Although these signals are unlicensed they are also the same waves that microwaves and telephones utilize.

Accessing the Internet with WLAN

While cell phones use towers to receive their signals, a computer needs a base or router to act as an access point—receives the Internet signal from a server. The first of these bases needed external antennae to counter the effects of other signal interference but with advancements, it has been possible for the wireless user to pick up signals in public locations such as office buildings, hotels, and even hospitals. Desktops use routers that have a MAC (Media Access Control) code —found on the bottom of the router along with the serial number and the WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy number—that is typed into the computer’s connection information to allow for wireless connection. WEP is a portion of the security used by the router to protect the user’s privacy.

Security Flaws

As with many other systems used initially on computers, WEP was easily broken and most systems now use WPA or WPA2 (WiFi Protected Access) or some other security system to ensure privacy for wireless users.

IEEE 802.11

The IEEE that is seen on most computers in association with the wireless system stands for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and 802.11 (with either a b or another letter of the alphabet) are the eleven channels on which wireless Internet is able to transmit and communicate. Most new computers are equipped with wireless cards when purchased; however, there are wireless setups that can connect through the USB port on a computer. These are easily installed and can be ready in just a few minutes.


IEEE 802.11n

On 29. November 2011, in Enhanced Wireless, IEEE 802.11n, WLAN, by ewc

Standards for the implementation of wireless networked computer communications are developed, implemented and regulated by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standard Committee, also known as the IEE802. These standards serve as the foundations for wireless networking technology under the brand name of ‘Wi-Fi’ in consumer electronics and other communications devices. IEEE 802.11n (wireless) is the name for a set of standards for the implementation of wireless local area network (WLAN) setups to enable communication between technological devices such as computers. The IEE 802.11n family is comprised of modulation methods utilizing the same basic protocol. The standards exist between the parameters of the frequency bands of 2.4, 3.6, and 5 gigahertz.

While other standards for wireless networking preceded the IEE 802.11n standard, such as the 802.11-997 protocol, IEE 802.11n was the first standard to be widely accepted. Its origins lie in the 1985 ruling of the United States\’ Federal Communications Council, which made the ISM band available for use without a license. At the end of the twentieth century, the Wi-Fi Alliance was formed to bear the ‘Wi-Fi’ trademark as a trade association. Most products are now sold under this trademark.

It divides the bands within the described parameters into channels, similar to the manner in which radio and television broadcasting bands are divided. The availability of the channels is controlled on a country-by-country basis, with some countries permitting radio spectrum over certain channels but not others. Amendments are issues by the IEE Commission on a regular basis to create new capabilities or expand capacity.

Several groups in the United States and other countries have produced reports which question the security of the IEE 802.11n protocol. As a result the IEE formed a specialized task group to develop a replacement protocol which would provide improved security to users of the ‘Wi-Fi’ brand. Many companies now implement the IEE 802.11n protocol in their technologies, as it offers excellent performance, extensive range and improved reliability. It provides technology called multiple-input, multiple-output, which further improves performance and reliability of networks, as well as extending the range to which the network is broadcast, enabling more users to use the technology simultaneously.

Tagged with:

Wi-Fi Technology

On 29. November 2011, in Enhanced Wireless, WLAN, by ewc

Wi-Fi Technology: An Introduction


Wi-Fi Technology produces network and Internet access to devices without cables. An organization called IEEE developed a wireless communication protocol called 802.11. There have been many versions of 802.11, like 802.11B, 802.11G and 802.11N. As long as companies all use the same protocol, their devices can communicate with each other. So, if you have a Dell laptop that supports 802.11N, it can communicate with any 802.11N device, even ones made by other companies.

Small Areas

Wi-Fi Technology was originally developed for computers, but later other devices were developed that are Wi-Fi enabled. Game consoles, like Wii and PS3, are Wi-Fi enabled. MP3 players, like iPods are Wi-Fi enabled. Also, many cell phones are Wi-Fi enabled. We are seeing a greater number of devices depend upon Wi-Fi Technology.

Larger Areas

Although Wi-Fi was originally used for small areas, like houses and offices; it can be used for large areas. Many college and medical campuses have Wi-Fi service throughout the campus. Any approved Wi-Fi device can connect and get network and Internet access. In some cases entire cities have invested in Wi-Fi Technology. For a small fee anyone throughout the city can have Internet access. Wi-Fi Technology has become very useful outside the small area use.

Historic Buildings

Another great use for Wi-Fi Technology is in old, historic buildings. Some companies are located in historic buildings. In most cases they did not have drop ceilings and hollow walls to easily run cables. In historic buildings it may even be against the law to make major changes to the building. For these companies Wi-Fi is a perfect solution. Wi-Fi can give employees high-speed network access without running wires.


Because sensitive information can be passed over a Wi-Fi channel, there is a need for encryption. Sensitive information could be personal bank account information, company trade secrets or government security information. To resolve this problem, Wi-Fi technology supports many types of encryption.

Wi-Fi Technology is widely used today. Many devices support it and the number of Wi-Fi enabled devices increases daily.